• Flavors and fragrances

    Fragrance or spice refers to the material with an aromatic odor itself. Most of the pastries and cookies can be added with spices and fragrances in order to improve or enhance the aroma and flavor. These spices and fragrances are called flavoring agent. Spices, according to different sources, can be divided into natural and artificial spices. Natural spices also include animal and vegetable spices with food production mainly using vegetable spices. Artificial spice is compound made from the synthesis reaction of raw materials including petrochemical products and coal tar products. Fragrance is compound spices made from several or dozens of spices via diluent blending. Strictly speaking, spices generally refer to the raw material used for making fragrance and are rarely used directly in food. Fragrance is instead an important raw material directly used to increase the food flavor.

    The food flavoring process is a complex project. It is not simply a composite of several fragrances, but also involves many factors such as whether this fragrance can be merged with food substrate material; whether it is acid resistant, heat resistant; whether it can keep stable during the process of sterilization and preservation, etc. Moreover, because of the different sources and purities of spices in different categories of fragrances, even for the same kind of fragrance, the usage amount in the same product can be quite difference and should be paid great attention. Generally speaking, for the liquid food, the total amount of various kinds of fragrances should not exceed 0.1% with <0.05% being appropriate. However, for solid product, the amount should be kept at about 0.1%.
    For food, the fragrance and spice play a role of inducing appetite and promoting appetite, and thus being an indispensable part of food. Excellent fragrance, spice products play a role of “make the finishing point. Being fresh and natural is the goal that the food industry adopting fragrance and spices wish to achieve while the clever combination of a variety of fragrances can make the food product icing on the cake.

    Spices and fragrances are relatively common in the recipe of cakes and biscuits. Except for a few species, almost every varies must be supplemented with spices or fragrances. The major purpose of supplementing spices or fragrance in cakes and biscuits is to endow the product with unique flavor and enhance the flavor of the product. Thus, according to different categories of cakes and biscuits, we can choose different spices or fragrances to make the product have different flavors. For example, cream crackers can be supplemented with butter fragrance; coconut cake can be supplemented with coconut oil fragrances; orange biscuits can be supplemented with orange essential oils and so on. Natural spices have high safety with mild and smoothing flavoring, being better than artificial spices and fragrances. There are many types of natural spices with commonly used types including lemon oil, orange oil and coconut oil. Most kinds of food fragrances are the fruit-aroma fragrances formulated from imitating a variety of fruit aromas.

    In the production of biscuits, commonly used food fragrances include lemon fragrance, orange fragrance, coconut fragrance, banana fragrance and strawberry fragrance. In addition, there are some other more common types of flavors, such as cocoa fragrance, butter fragrance and vanilla fragrance. Water-soluble fragrances are formulated from using distilled water, ethanol, propylene glycol or glycerol as a diluent. They are prone to be evaporated and are not suitable for bakery scenting purposes. Oil-soluble fragrances are used to refine the vegetable oil and are formulated using glycerol or propylene glycol as the diluent with better heat resistance than the water-soluble fragrances, making it be suitable for baked goods.

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    Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
    2,6-Dimethoxyphenol 2,6-Dimethoxyphenol 91-10-1 C8H10O3
    4-Propylphenol 4-Propylphenol 645-56-7 C9H12O
    2-Pyrazinylethanethiol 2-Pyrazinylethanethiol 35250-53-4 C6H8N2S
    Citronellol Citronellol 106-22-9 C10H20O
    2-Thienyl disulfide 2-Thienyl disulfide 6911-51-9 C8H6S4
    Hydroxyacetone Hydroxyacetone 116-09-6 C3H6O2
    2,3,6-Trimethylphenol 2,3,6-Trimethylphenol 2416-94-6 C9H12O
    3-Heptanone 3-Heptanone 106-35-4 C7H14O
    trans-2-Hexenoic acid trans-2-Hexenoic acid 13419-69-7 C6H10O2
    2-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 6032-29-7 C5H12O
    Cinnamaldehyde Cinnamaldehyde 104-55-2 C9H8O
    5-METHYLQUINOXALINE 5-METHYLQUINOXALINE 13708-12-8 C9H8N2
    alpha-Ionone alpha-Ionone 127-41-3 C13H20O
    Benzaldehyde propylene glycol acetal Benzaldehyde propylene glycol acetal 2568-25-4 C10H12O2
    PROPYL BENZOATE PROPYL BENZOATE 2315-68-6 C10H12O2
    Methyl valeraldehyde Methyl valeraldehyde 123-15-9 C6H12O
    Dimethyl adipate Dimethyl adipate 627-93-0 C8H14O4
    4-Methylthiazole 4-Methylthiazole 693-95-8 C4H5NS
    4-Methylvaleric acid 4-Methylvaleric acid 646-07-1 C6H12O2
    alpha-Methylcinnamaldehyde alpha-Methylcinnamaldehyde 101-39-3 C10H10O
    Benzothiazole Benzothiazole 95-16-9 C7H5NS
    L(-)-Carvone L(-)-Carvone 6485-40-1 C10H14O
    2,5-Dimethyl-1H-pyrrole 2,5-Dimethyl-1H-pyrrole 625-84-3 C6H9N
    Ethyl butyrylacetate Ethyl butyrylacetate 3249-68-1 C8H14O3
    2-METHOXYTHIAZOLE 2-METHOXYTHIAZOLE 14542-13-3 C4H5NOS
    4-Ethylphenol 4-Ethylphenol 123-07-9 C8H10O
    trans,trans-2,4-Decadien-1-al trans,trans-2,4-Decadien-1-al 25152-84-5 C10H16O
    alpha-Hexylcinnamaldehyde alpha-Hexylcinnamaldehyde 101-86-0 C15H20O
    Sclareol Sclareol 515-03-7 C20H36O2
    DL-3-Methylvaleric acid DL-3-Methylvaleric acid 105-43-1 C6H12O2
    2-Nonanone 2-Nonanone 821-55-6 C9H18O
    2-Methylthiophene 2-Methylthiophene 554-14-3 C5H6S
    4-Hexanolide 4-Hexanolide 695-06-7 C6H10O2
    2-Acetylfuran 2-Acetylfuran 1192-62-7 C6H6O2
    Ethyl benzoylacetate Ethyl benzoylacetate 94-02-0 C11H12O3
    4,5-Dimethyl-2-isobutyl-3-thiazoline 4,5-Dimethyl-2-isobutyl-3-thiazoline 65894-83-9 C9H17NS
    3-Methylthiophene 3-Methylthiophene 616-44-4 C5H6S
    3-Methoxybenzoic acid 3-Methoxybenzoic acid 586-38-9 C8H8O3
    alpha-Angelica lactone alpha-Angelica lactone 591-12-8 C5H6O2
    2,5-Dimethylfuran 2,5-Dimethylfuran 625-86-5 C6H8O
    2',4'-Dimethylacetophenone 2',4'-Dimethylacetophenone 89-74-7 C10H12O
    trans,trans-2,4-Heptadienal trans,trans-2,4-Heptadienal 4313-03-5 C7H10O
    METHYL MYRISTATE METHYL MYRISTATE 124-10-7 C15H30O2
    2,4-Dimethylthiazole 2,4-Dimethylthiazole 541-58-2 C5H7NS
    3,4-Hexanedione 3,4-Hexanedione 4437-51-8 C6H10O2
    2-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 543-49-7 C7H16O
    1-Penten-3-ol 1-Penten-3-ol 616-25-1 C5H10O
    ETHYL (METHYLTHIO)ACETATE ETHYL (METHYLTHIO)ACETATE 4455-13-4 C5H10O2S
    Isobutyric acid Isobutyric acid 79-31-2 C4H8O2
    2-Methyl-2-pentenoic acid 2-Methyl-2-pentenoic acid 3142-72-1 C6H10O2
    Octyl 4-methoxycinnamate Octyl 4-methoxycinnamate 5466-77-3 C18H26O3
    2,6-Dimethyl-5-heptenal 2,6-Dimethyl-5-heptenal 106-72-9 C9H16O
    2,4-Dimethyl-3-ethyl-1H-pyrrole 2,4-Dimethyl-3-ethyl-1H-pyrrole 517-22-6 C8H13N
    4-Methyloctanoic acid 4-Methyloctanoic acid 54947-74-9 C9H18O2
    2,6-DIMETHYLTHIOPHENOL 2,6-DIMETHYLTHIOPHENOL 118-72-9 C8H10S
    Piperidine Piperidine 110-89-4 C5H11N
    2,5-Dihydroxy-1,4-dithiane 2,5-Dihydroxy-1,4-dithiane 40018-26-6 C4H8O2S2
    2-Pentylpyridine 2-Pentylpyridine 2294-76-0 C10H15N
    gamma-Valerolactone gamma-Valerolactone 108-29-2 C5H8O2
    Diethyl 2,4-dimethylpyrrole-3,5-dicarboxylate Diethyl 2,4-dimethylpyrrole-3,5-dicarboxylate 2436-79-5 C12H17NO4
    3-Acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene 3-Acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene 2530-10-1 C8H10OS
    gamma-Octanoic lactone gamma-Octanoic lactone 104-50-7 C8H14O2
    2-Pentyl-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one 2-Pentyl-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one 1128-08-1 C11H18O
    4-Heptanone 4-Heptanone 123-19-3 C7H14O
    (E,E)-Farnesol (E,E)-Farnesol 106-28-5 C15H26O
    Ethyl 3-phenylpropionate Ethyl 3-phenylpropionate 2021-28-5 C11H14O2
    2-Octanone 2-Octanone 111-13-7 C8H16O
    2',5'-Dimethoxyacetophenone 2',5'-Dimethoxyacetophenone 1201-38-3 C10H12O3
    2,6-Diacetylpyridine 2,6-Diacetylpyridine 1129-30-2 C9H9NO2
    1-Octen-3-ol 1-Octen-3-ol 3391-86-4 C8H16O
    Ethyl crotonate Ethyl crotonate 623-70-1 C6H10O2
    Pyruvic acid Pyruvic acid 127-17-3 C3H4O3
    2-Acetylthiophene 2-Acetylthiophene 88-15-3 C6H6OS
    4-Methyl-5-vinylthiazole 4-Methyl-5-vinylthiazole 1759-28-0 C6H7NS
    2-Tridecanone 2-Tridecanone 593-08-8 C13H26O
    2-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 137-32-6 C5H12O
    4-Methyl-5-thiazolylethyl acetate 4-Methyl-5-thiazolylethyl acetate 656-53-1 C8H11NO2S
    2,5-Dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone 2,5-Dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone 14400-67-0 C6H8O2
    Tributyrin Tributyrin 60-01-5 C15H26O6
    2,3-Pentanedione 2,3-Pentanedione 600-14-6 C5H8O2
    Butyl hexanoate Butyl hexanoate 626-82-4 C10H20O2
    2,5-Dimethylthiophene 2,5-Dimethylthiophene 638-02-8 C6H8S
    3-Phenylpropionic acid 3-Phenylpropionic acid 501-52-0 C9H10O2
    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural 67-47-0 C6H6O3
    1-Bromopentane 1-Bromopentane 110-53-2 C5H11Br
    2-Isobutylthiazole 2-Isobutylthiazole 18640-74-9 C7H11NS
    trans-2-Hexen-1-ol trans-2-Hexen-1-ol 928-95-0 C6H12O
    β-Lonone β-Lonone 79-77-6 C13H20O
    4,5-Dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one 4,5-Dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one 28664-35-9 C6H8O3
    1,1-Dimethoxyethane 1,1-Dimethoxyethane 534-15-6 C4H10O2
    (1R)-(-)-Menthyl acetate (1R)-(-)-Menthyl acetate 2623-23-6 C12H22O2
    2-Acetylpyridine 2-Acetylpyridine 1122-62-9 C7H7NO
    1-Pentanol 1-Pentanol 71-41-0 C5H12O
    2-Methyl-2-thiazoline 2-Methyl-2-thiazoline 2346-00-1 C4H7NS
    Dihydro-2-methyl-3(2H)-thiophenone Dihydro-2-methyl-3(2H)-thiophenone 13679-85-1 C5H8OS
    D(+)-Carvone D(+)-Carvone 2244-16-8 C10H14O
    delta-Dodecalactone delta-Dodecalactone 713-95-1 C12H22O2
    Ethyl L(-)-lactate Ethyl L(-)-lactate 687-47-8 C5H10O3
    5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroquinoxaline 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroquinoxaline 34413-35-9 C8H10N2
    Quinaldine Quinaldine 91-63-4 C10H9N
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